Therefore, FAO and CIHEAM-Bari started a joint collaboration on the Mediterranean diet as a case study on which to develop and validate methods and indicators for the assessment of the sustainability of diets and food consumption patterns in the Mediterranean area.
Several dietary guidelines for specific Mediterranean populations have been also developed, associated with a pyramidal representation, such as for the Spanish 33Greek 34and Italian populations 35 The new revised Mediterranean diet pyramid was conceived as a simplified main frame to be adapted to different countries specific variations related to the various geographical, socio-economic, and cultural contexts of the contemporary Mediterranean lifestyle, taking into account also their different portions and serving sizes.
Then, in the early s, the Mediterranean diet as a plant-centered diet, consequently lowered demand on soil, water, and energy resources, began to be researched by Joan Dye Gussow as a sustainable dietary pattern, which also considers the overall impact on the ecosystem At this conference, the Mediterranean diet was analyzed as a sustainable diet model, because of its nutritional, environmental, economic, and socio-cultural dimensions at the core of the sustainability rationale Investigations in the early 90s already showed that dietary patterns throughout the Mediterranean countries were increasingly moving away 18 — 20 from those reported in the 60s.
Under-nutrition is still significant in the South of the Mediterranean: The same for the carbon footprintno longer evaluated in absolute terms, but on the basis of the quantities of food actually consumed within a proper and balanced diet such as the Mediterranean Diet.
Food consumption is variably affected by a wide range of factors including food availability, food accessibility, and food choices, which in turn may be influenced by geography, demography, disposable income, socio-economic status, urbanization, globalization, religion, culture, marketing, and consumer attitude 73 Consumer choice can play a leading role to orient food production toward sustainability, by selecting certain types of products according to their geographic origin, production process, thereby creating value especially for small producers.
Since the early 90s, the healthy Mediterranean diet pattern has been popularized using a pyramid representation as a dietary guideline, in which were highlighted graphically the foods to consume daily, weekly, or less frequently 3. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet is more than just a defined diet, but it represents the plurality of various cultural expressions of different Mediterranean food cultures and lifestyles.
Today, a main concern for the Mediterranean food and agricultural sector is also to conserve natural resources for future generations while providing simultaneously enough food, in quantity and quality, to meet the nutritional needs of a growing population.
It promotes social interaction, since communal meals are the cornerstone of social customs and festive events. The evolution of concepts surrounding the Mediterranean diet 2.
In this revised Mediterranean diet pyramid, for the first time, nutrition, eco-friendly products, biodiversity, fruits, and vegetables with a variety of colors, local food production, and conviviality, were brought together with the concept of sustainability 5 Conclusion Numerous questions still need to be addressed on the broader concept of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet, particularly after its acknowledgment by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage, with a need for providing more assessments of its socio-cultural and economic sustainability, which are still lacking.
Some studies have shown that foods with lower greenhouse gas emissions do not have always also higher nutritional values 7778and more studies are also needed to assess the relation between the nutrient adequacy of individual foods and total diets in relation to multiple sustainability assessments This discussion paper also provided a first list of potential sustainability indicators, based on existing data source, taking into account priority challenges 58 Thus, high-protein foods meat, fish, eggs, legumes, cold meats have the same levels of carbon footprint of that produced by vegetable foods fruits, vegetables.
Therefore, changes toward optimizing both food consumption and food production are foreseen to ensure more SFSs and contribute to achieve food and nutrition security in the Mediterranean region Therefore, the Mediterranean diet is more than just a defined diet, but it represents the plurality of various cultural expressions of different Mediterranean food cultures and lifestyles.
Inreported rates for overweight and obesity were as follows: The Mediterranean diet is characterized by a nutritional model that has remained constant over time and space, consisting mainly of olive oil, cereals, fresh or dried fruit and vegetables, a moderate amount of fish, dairy and meat, and many condiments and spices, all accompanied by wine or infusions, always respecting beliefs of each community.
Comparing the carbon footprint kg of carbon dioxide emitted per kg of productthe water footprint liter of water consumed per kg of product and the ecological footprint squared meters per kg of product of the Mediterranean Diet with those of a high-protein diet, we can see that the Mediterranean Diet has a significantly lower impact click to enlarge the table.
Moreover, more recent data have confirmed that in many Mediterranean countries the loss of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is continuing and increasing 22 — 30linked also to the current economic downturn Women play a particularly vital role in the transmission of expertise, as well as knowledge of rituals, traditional gestures and celebrations, and the safeguarding of techniques.
Population growth, globalization, urbanization, and socio-economic factors are causing changes in diets and consumption patterns in the Mediterranean region and southern European countries 64 — Mediterranean diet, sustainable diets, sustainable food systems, food consumption, food cultures, intangible cultural heritage Introduction Mediterranean dietary patterns have developed over the past or more years spreading from the Fertile Crescent 1 and influenced by the conquests of many different civilizations, the consolidated dietary rules of the three main monotheistic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islamand continuous interactions, additions, and exchanges inside and outside the region.The Mediterranean diet constitutes a set of skills, knowledge, practices and traditions ranging from the landscape to the table, including the crops, harvesting, fishing, conservation, processing, preparation and, particularly, consumption of food.
The Mediterranean diet originated also a considerable set of knowledge, chants, refrains, tales and legends. Therefore there is an attitude of respect for the land and the biodiversity and guarantees of the preservation and development of traditional and artisanal activities linked to agriculture and fishing in many communities in the Mediterranean ().
Objective: To present the Mediterranean diet as an example of a sustainable diet, in which nutrition, biodiversity, local food production, culture and sustainability are strongly interconnected.
· To present the Mediterranean diet as an example of a sustainable diet, in which nutrition, biodiversity, local food production, culture and sustainability are strongly interconnected.
Design Review of notions and activities contributing towards the acknowledgement of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable festival-decazeville.com by: · The results to date clearly indicate that the Mediterranean diet is also a healthy and sustainable diet model, essentially through the reduced environmental impact of its primarily vegetable.
· The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable festival-decazeville.com by: